Professor Linda Lua, founding director of the UQ Protein Expression Facility (PEF); leads a team of research specialists, producing high-quality synthetic proteins to enable and support discovery and translational research. She is internationally recognised for her research-enabling technologies to produce products that range from simple biomolecules to complex biomolecular assemblies such as multi-protein virus-like particles. Applying her expertise, she researches into vaccine technology to address vaccine manufacturing challenges which translated into patented technology platforms. Prof. Lua has initiated and led significant industry engagements, both nationally and internationally. Her project management portfolio also includes projects from 16 Universities across Australia as well as public and private research institutes.

Prof. Lua's vision and leadership has established PEF as the leading protein production facility in Australia. Together with her high performing team, she has worked on hundreds of proteins for diverse applications in the areas of structural biology and chemistry, drug screening and discovery, vaccine development and delivery, protein therapeutics, functionalised material, biomedical imaging and agricultural science. She has also developed training programs within the Facility to upskill research students and staff. The Protein Expression Facility has a global reputation for excellence and was awarded the 2016 UQ Award for Excellence in Service and the Chancellor's Award for Team Excellence in 2013. These awards are recognitions and testaments to Assoc. Prof. Lua's exemplary leadership.


Middelberg, Anton P. J. and Lua, Linda H. L (2013).Immunogenic compositions and methods thereforWO2013020183 A1.

Linda Lua and Middelberg, Anton P.J. (2008).VLP BASED VACCINE DELIVERY SYSTEMWO2008040060.

Lua, Linda and Reid, Steven (2005).Method of producing baculovirusWO2005/045014 A1.

Key Publications

  1. Lua, Linda H. L. and Chuan, Yap Pang (2012).Advances in protein production technologies. In Ganapathy Subramanian(Ed.), Biopharmaceutical production technology (pp. 43-77) Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/9783527653096.ch2
  2. Chuan, Yap PangLua, Linda H. L. and Middelberg, Anton P. J. (2012).Virus-like particle bioprocessing. In Ganapathy Subramanian (Ed.), Biopharmaceutical production technology (pp. 139-163) Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/9783527653096.ch5
  3. Charlton Hume, Hayley K.Vidigal, JoãoCarrondo, Manuel J. T.Middelberg, Anton P. J.Roldão, António and Lua, Linda H. L. (2019)Synthetic biology for bioengineering virus-like particle vaccinesBiotechnology and Bioengineering116 4: 919-935. doi:10.1002/bit.26890
  4. Somasundaram, BalajiPleitt, KristinaShave, EvanBaker, Kym and Lua, Linda H. L. (2018)Progression of continuous downstream processing of monoclonal antibodies: current trends and challengesBiotechnology and Bioengineering, . doi:10.1002/bit.26812
  5. Walker, Julia A.Robinson, Kye J.Munro, ChristopherGengenbach, ThomasMuller, David A.Young, Paul R.Lua, Linda H. L. and Corrie, Simon R. (2018)Antibody-binding, antifouling surface coatings based on recombinant expression of zwitterionic EK peptidesLangmuir, . doi:10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b00810
  6. Palomares, Laura A.Mukhopadhyay, Tarit K.Genzel, Yvonne, Lua, Linda H.L.and Cox, Manon M.J. (2018)Vaccine Technology VI: innovative and integrated approaches in vaccine developmentVaccine36 22: 3061-3063. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.03.077
  7. Stolt-Bergner, PeggyBenda, ChristianBergbrede, TimBesir, HüseyinCelie, Patrick H. N.Chang, CindyDrechsel, DavidFischer, ArianeGeerlof, ArieGiabbai, Barbaravan den Heuvel, JoopHuber, GeorgKnecht, WolfgangLehner, AnitaLemaitre, RegisNordén, KristinaPardee, GwynnRacke, InesRemans, KimSander, AstridScholz, JudithStadnik, MagdaStorici, PaolaWeinbruch, DanielZaror, IsabelLua, Linda H. L. and Suppmann, Sabine (2018)Baculovirus-driven protein expression in insect cells: a benchmarking studyJournal of Structural Biology203 2: 71-80. doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2018.03.004
  8. Lua, Linda H. L. and Fooks, Anthony R. (2017)Preface: BiosecurityVaccine35 44: 5947-5948. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.08.077
  9. Petermann, JulieBonnefond, RomainMermoud, IsabelleRantoen, DewiMeynard, LaureMunro, ChristopherLua, Linda H. L. and Hue, Thomas (2017)Evaluation of three adjuvants with respect to both adverse effects and the efficacy of antibody production to the Bm86 proteinExperimental and Applied Acarology72 3: 303-315. doi:10.1007/s10493-017-0156-4
  10. Charlton Hume, Hayley K. and Lua, Linda H. L. (2017)Platform technologies for modern vaccine manufacturingVaccine3535: 4480-4485. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.02.069
  11. Fontaine, FrankOverman, JeroenMoustaqil, MehdiMamidyala, SreemanSalim, AngelaNarasimhan, KameshProkoph, NinaRobertson, Avril A. B., Lua, LindaAlexandrov, KirillKoopman, PeterCapon, Robert J.Sierecki, EmmaGambin, YannJauch, RalfCooper, Matthew A.Zuegg, Johannes and Francois, Mathias (2017)Small-molecule inhibitors of the SOX18 transcription factorChemistry Chemical Biology24 3: 346-359. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2017.01.003
  12. Razaghi, AliTan, EmilynLua, Linda H. L.Owens, LeighKarthikeyan, O. P. and Heimann, Kirsten (2017)Is Pichia pastoris a realistic platform for industrial production of recombinant human interferon gamma?Biologicals45 52-60. doi:10.1016/j.biologicals.2016.09.015
  13. Seth, ArjunKong, Il GyuLee, Su-HyunYang, Jin-YoungLee, Yong-SooKim, YejiWibowo, NaniMiddelberg, Anton P.J., Lua, Linda H.L. and Kweon, Mi-Na(2016)Modular virus-like particles for sublingual vaccination against group A streptococcusVaccine34 51: 6472-6480. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.11.008
  14. Waneesorn, JarurinWibowo, NaniBingham, JohnMiddelberg, Anton P. J. and Lua, Linda H.L. (2016)Structural-based designed modular capsomere comprising HA1 for low-cost poultry influenza vaccinationVaccine36 22: 3064-3071. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.11.058
  15. Tekewe, AlemuFan, YuanyuanTan, EmilynMiddelberg, Anton P. J. and Lua, Linda H. L. (2016)Integrated molecular and bioprocess engineering for bacterially produced immunogenic modular virus-like particle vaccine displaying 18 kDa rotavirus antigenBiotechnology and Bioengineering114 2: 397-406. doi:10.1002/bit.26068
  16. Tekewe, AlemuConnors, Natalie K.Middelberg, Anton P. J. and Lua, Linda H. L.(2016)Design strategies to address the effect of hydrophobic epitope on stability and in vitro assembly of modular virus-like particleProtein Science25 8: 1507-1516. doi:10.1002/pro.2953
  17. Wibowo, NaniWu, YangFan, YuanyuanMeers, Joanne, Lua, Linda H. L. and Middelberg, Anton P. J. (2015)Non-chromatographic preparation of a bacterially produced single-shot modular virus-like particle capsomere vaccine for avian influenzaVaccine33 44: 5960-5965. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.08.100
  18. Wibowo, Nani, Lua, Linda Hwee-LinJungbauer, Alois and Ma, Guanghui (2015)VaccineVaccine Engineering33 44: 5889-5889. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.10.002
  19. Lua, Linda H.L.Fan, YuanyuanChang, CindyConnors, Natalie K. and Middelberg, Anton P.J. (2015)Synthetic biology design to display an 18 kDa rotavirus large antigen on a modular virus-like particleVaccine33 44: 5937-5944. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.09.017
  20. Abidin, R.S.Lua, L.H.L.Middelberg, A.P.J. and Sainsbury, F. (2015)Insert engineering and solubility screening improves recovery of virus-like particle subunits displaying hydrophobic epitopesProtein Science24 11: 1820-1828. doi:10.1002/pro.2775
  21. Zhang, LinLua, Linda H. L.Middelberg, Anton P. J.Sun, Yan and Connors, Natalie K. (2015)Biomolecular engineering of virus-like particles aided by computational chemistry methodsChemical Society Reviews44 23: 8608-8618. doi:10.1039/c5cs00526d
  22. Tekewe, AlemuConnors, Natalie K.Sainsbury, FrankWibowo, Nani, Lua, Linda H. L. and Middelberg, Anton P. J. (2015)A rapid and simple screening method to identify conditions for enhanced stability of modular vaccine candidatesBiochemical Engineering Journal100 50-58. doi:10.1016/j.bej.2015.04.004
  23. Seth, ArjunRitchie, Fiona K.Wibowo, NaniLua, Linda H. L. and Middelberg, Anton P. J. (2015)Non-Carrier Nanoparticles Adjuvant ModularProtein Vaccine in a Particle-Dependent MannerPLoS One10 3: e0117203-e0117203. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117203
  24. Somasundaram, Balaji and Lua, Linda H. L. (2015)Development of picornavirus-like particle vaccinesPharmaceutical Bioprocessing3 1: 45-49. doi:10.4155/pbp.14.39
  25. Somasundaram, BalajiChang, CindyFan, Yuan Y.Lim, Pei-YinCardosa, Janeand Lua, Linda (2015)Characterizing Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 Virus-like Particles Production in Insect CellsMethods95 38-45. doi:10.1016/j.ymeth.2015.09.023
  26. Chuan, Yap P.Wibowo, NaniLua, Linda H. L. and Middelberg, Anton P. J. (2014)The economics of virus-like particle and capsomere vaccinesBiochemical Engineering Journal90 255-263. doi:10.1016/j.bej.2014.06.005
  27. Zhang, LinTang, RonghongBai, ShuConnors, Natalie K., Lua, Linda H. L.Chuan, Yap P.Middelberg, Anton P. J. and Sun, Yan (2014)Energetic changes caused by antigenic module insertion in a virus-like particle revealed by experiment and molecular dynamics simulationsPLoS One9 9: e107313.1-e107313.12. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0107313
  28. Wibowo, NaniHughes, Fiona K.Fairmaid, Emily J., Lua, Linda H. L., Brown, Lorena E. and Middelberg, Anton P. J. (2014)Protective efficacy of a bacterially produced modular capsomere presenting M2e from influenza: Extending the potential of broadly cross-protecting epitopesVaccine32 29: 3651-3655. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.062
  29. Wibowo, NaniChuan, Yap P.Seth, ArjunCordoba, Yoann, Lua, Linda H. L. and Middelberg, Anton P. J. (2014)Co-administration of non-carrier nanoparticles boosts antigen immune response without requiring protein conjugationVaccine32 29: 3664-3669. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.043
  30. Lua, Linda H. L.Connors, Natalie K.Sainsbury, FrankChuan, Yap P.Wibowo, Nani and Middelberg, Anton P. J. (2014)Bioengineering virus-like particles as vaccinesBiotechnology and Bioengineering111 3: 425-440. doi:10.1002/bit.25159
  31. Chuan, Yap P.Wibowo, NaniConnors, Natalie K.Wu, YangHughes, Fiona K.Batzloff, Michael R., Lua, Linda H. L. and Middelberg, Anton P. J. (2013)Microbially synthesized modular virus-like particles and capsomeres displaying group A streptococcus hypervariable antigenic determinantsBiotechnology and BioengineeringEarly View 6: 1-9. doi:10.1002/bit.25172
  32. Middelberg, Anton P. J. and Lua, Linda H. L. (2013)Virus-like particle bioprocessing: challenges and opportunitiesPharmaceutical Bioprocessing1 5: 407-409. doi:10.4155/pbp.13.49
  33. Anggraeni, Melisa R.Connors, Natalie K.Wu, YangChuan, Yap P.Lua, Linda H. L. and Middelberg, Anton P. J. (2013)Sensitivity of immune response quality to influenza helix 190 antigen structure displayed on a modular virus-like particleVaccine31 40: 4428-4435. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.06.087
  34. Connors, Natalie K.Wu, Yang, Lua, Linda H. L. and Middelberg, Anton P. J.(2013)Improved fusion tag cleavage strategies in the downstream processing of self-assembling virus-like particle vaccinesFood and Bioproducts Processing92 2: 143-151. doi:10.1016/j.fbp.2013.08.012
  35. Chuan, Yap P.Rivera-Hernandez, TaniaWibowo, NaniConnors, Natalie K.Wu, YangHughes, Fiona K.Lua, Linda H. L. and Middelberg, Anton P. J. (2013)Effects of pre-existing anti-carrier immunity and antigenic element multiplicity on efficacy of a modular virus-like particle vaccineBiotechnology and Bioengineering110 9: 2343-2351. doi:10.1002/bit.24907
  36. Mohr, JohannesChuan, Yap P.Wu, YangLua, Linda H. L. and Middelberg, Anton P. J. (2013)Virus-like particle formulation optimization by miniaturized high-throughput screeningMethods60 3: 248-256. doi:10.1016/j.ymeth.2013.04.019
  37. Zhang, LinTang, RonghongBai, ShuConnors, Natalie K., Lua, Linda H. L.Chuan, Yap P.Middelberg, Anton P. J. and Sun, Yan (2013)Molecular Energetics in the Capsomere of Virus-Like Particle Revealed by Molecular Dynamics SimulationsJournal of Physical Chemistry B117 18: 5411-5421. doi:10.1021/jp311170w
  38. Rivera-Hernandez, TaniaHartas, JonWu, YangChuan, Yap P.Lua, Linda H. L.Good, MichaelBatzloff, Michael R. and Middelberg, Anton P. J. (2013)Self-adjuvanting modular virus-like particles for mucosal vaccination against group A streptococcus (GAS)Vaccine31 15: 1950-1955. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.02.013
  39. Chen, Kai-EnRichards, Ayanthi A.Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.Vajjhala, Parimala R.Robin, Gautier, Lua, Linda H. L.Hill, Justine M.Schroder, KateSweet, Matthew J.Kellie, StuartKobe, Bostjan and Martin, Jennifer (2013)The structure of the caspase recruitment domain of BinCARD reveals that all three cysteines can be oxidizedActa Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography69 5: 774-784. doi:10.1107/S0907444913001558
  40. Wibowo, NaniChuan, Yap P.Lua, Linda H. L. and Middelberg, Anton P. J. (2012)Modular engineering of a microbially-produced viral capsomere vaccine for influenzaChemical Engineering Science103 12-20. doi:10.1016/j.ces.2012.04.001
  41. Middelberg, Anton P.J.Rivera-Hernandez, TaniaWibowo, Nani, Lua, Linda H.L.Fan, YuanyuanMagor, GrahamChang, CindyChuan, Yap P.Good, Michael F.and Batzloff, Michael R. (2011)A microbial platform for rapid and low-cost virus-like particle and capsomere vaccinesVaccine29 41: 7154-7162. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.05.075
  42. Tay, Derrick Kok SingRajagopalan, GobinathLi, XiangChen, Yu, Linda H.L. Lua and Leong, Susanna Su Jan (2011)A new bioproduction route for a novel antimicrobial peptideBiotechnology and Bioengineering108 3: 572-581. doi:10.1002/bit.22970
  43. Hu, Shu-HongChristie, Michelle P.Saez, Natalie J.Latham, Catherine F.Jarrott, Russell, Lua, Linda H. L.Collins, Brett M. and Martin, Jennifer L. (2011)Possible roles for Munc18-1 domain 3a and Syntaxin1 N-peptide and C-terminal anchor in SNARE complex formationProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America108 3: 1040-1045. doi:10.1073/pnas.0914906108
  44. Chuan, Yap P.Fan, Yuan Y., Lua, Linda H.L. and Middelberg, Anton P.J. (2010)Virus assembly occurs following a pH- or Ca2+-triggered switch in the thermodynamic attraction between structural protein capsomeresJournal of The Royal Society Interface7 44: 409-421. doi:10.1098/rsif.2009.0175
  45. Hartmann, B. M.Kaar, W.Yoo, I. K.Lua, L. H. L.Falconer, R. J. and Middelberg, A. P. J. (2009)The Chromatography-Free Release, Isolation and Purification of Recombinant Peptide for Fibril Self-AssemblyBiotechnology and Bioengineering104 5: 973-985. doi:10.1002/bit.22447
  46. Lipin, D.I.Raj, A., Lua, L.H.L. and Middelberg, A.P.J. (2009)Affinity purification of viral protein having heterogeneous quaternary structure: Modeling the impact of soluble aggregates on chromatographic performanceJournal of Chromatography A1216 30: 5696-5708. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2009.05.082
  47. Pease, Leonard F.Lipin, Daniel I.Tsai, De-HaoZachariah, Michael R.Lua, Linda H. L.Tarlov, Michael J. and Middelberg, Anton P. J. (2009)Quantitative characterization of virus-like particles by asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation, electrospray differential mobility analysis, and transmission electron microscopyBiotechnology and Bioengineering102 3: 845-855. doi:10.1002/bit.22085
  48. Kaar, W.Hartmann, B. M.Fan, Y.Zeng, B., Lua, L. H. L.Dexter, A. F.Falconer, R. J. and Middelberg, A. P. J. (2009)Microbial bio-production of a recombinant stimuli-responsive biosurfactantBiotechnology and bioengineering102 1: 176-187. doi:10.1002/bit.22037
  49. Lipin, D. I.Chuan, Y. P.Lua, L. H. L. and Middelberg, A. P. J. (2008)Encapsulation of DNA and non-viral protein changes the structure of murine polyomavirus virus-like particlesArchives of Virology153 11: 2027-2039. doi:10.1007/s00705-008-0220-9
  50. Lipin, D. I.Lua, L. H. L. and Middelberg, A. P. J. (2008)Quaternary size distribution of soluble aggregates of glutathione-S-transferase-purified viral protein as determined by asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation and dynamic light scatteringJournal of Chromatography A1190 1-2: 204-214. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2008.03.032
  51. Chuan, Y. P.Fan, Y. Y.Lua, L. and Middelberg, A. P. J. (2008)Quantitative analysis of virus-like particle size and distribution by field-flow FractionationBiotechnology and Bioengineering99 6: 1425-1433. doi:10.1002/bit.21710
  52. Chuan, Y. P.Lua, L. H. L. and Middelberg, A. P. J. (2008)High-level expression of soluble viral structural protein in escherichia coliJournal of Biotechnology134 1-2: 64-71. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2007.12.004
  53. Kloda, A, Lua, LHall, RAdams, DJ and Martinac, B (2007)Liposome reconstitution and modulation of recombinant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channels by membrane stretchProceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America104 5: 1540-1545. doi:10.1073/pnas.0609649104
  54. Stack, Colin M.Lowther, JonathanCunningham, EithneDonnelly, SheilaGardiner, Donald L.Trenholme, Katharine R.Skinner-Adams, Tina S.Teuscher, FrankaGrembecka, JolantaMucha, ArturKafarski, Pawel, Lua, LindaBell, Angus and Dalton, John P. (2007)Characterization of the Plasmodium falciparum M17 leucyl aminopeptidase. A protease involved in amino acid regulation with potential for antimalarial drug developmentJournal of Biological Chemistry282 3: 2069-2080. doi:10.1074/jbc.M609251200
  55. McIntosh, A. H.Grasela, J. J.Lua, L. and Braunagel, S. C. (2004)Demonstration of the protective effects of fluorescent proteins in baculoviruses exposed to ultraviolet light inactivationJournal of Insect Science4 31: 1-9. doi:10.1673/031.004.3101
  56. Lua, Linda H. L. and Reid, Steven (2003)Effect of time of harvest of budded virus on the selection of baculovirus FP mutants in cell cultureBiotechnology Progress19 1: 238-242. doi:10.1021/bp025577u
  57. Lua, L. H. L. and Reid, S. (2003)Growth, viral production and metabolism of a Helicoverpa zea cell line in serum-free cultureCytotechnology42 3: 109-120. doi:10.1023/B:CYTO.0000015795.46813.44
  58. Lua, L. H. L.Nielsen, L. K. and Reid, S. (2003)Sensitivity of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus polyhedra to sodium dodecyl sulfateBiological Control26 1: 57-67. doi:10.1016/S1049-9644(02)00116-0
  59. Lua, Linda H. L.Pedrini, Marcia R. S.Reid, StevenRobertson, Ashley and Tribe, David E. (2002)Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus serially passaged in cell cultureJournal of General Virology83 4: 945-955. doi:10.1099/0022-1317-83-4-945
  60. Lua, L. H. L. and Reid, S. (2000)Virus morphogenesis of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus in Helicoverpa zea serum-free suspension cultureJournal of General Virology81 10: 2531-2543. doi:10.1099/0022-1317-81-10-2531
  61. Kong, ISeth, A.Yang, J-YLee, S-HLee, Y-SKim, Y.Middelberg, A.Wibowo, N., Lua, L. and Kweon, M-N (2016).Sublingual vaccination with self-adjuvanting virus-like particles against Group A streptococcus elicit protective immunity in systemic and mucosal sites: implication for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In: Meeting of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Vienna, Austria, (507-507). Jun 11-15, 2016.
  62. Wibowo, NaniRivera-Hernandez, TaniaFan, Yuan-YuanChang, CindyChuan, Yap PangLua, Linda and Middelberg, Anton (2009).Rapid response bioprocessing of influenza vaccines. In: APBioCHEC2009 : Abstracts. Asia Pacific Biochemical Engineering Conference, Kobe, Japan, (S21-S22). 24-28 November, 2009. doi:10.1016/j.jbiosc.2009.08.099
  63. Middelberg, AntonFalconer, Robert, Lua, LindaChuan, Yap PangFan, Yuan-Yuan and Zakaria, Hidayatul-Aini (2009).Terahertz and conventional analysis of virus-like particle vaccines. In: APBioCHEC2009 : Abstracts. Asia Pacific Biochemical Engineering Conference, Kobe, Japan, (S69-S69). 24-28 November, 2009. doi:10.1016/j.jbiosc.2009.08.203
  64. Middelberg, AntonHartmann, BelindaLua, Linda and Kaar, Waltraud (2009).Biomolecular engineering for recombinant sustainable surfactants. In: APBioCHEC2009 : Abstracts. Asia Pacific Biochemical Engineering Conference, Kobe, Japan, (S59-S60). 24-28 November, 2009. doi:10.1016/j.jbiosc.2009.08.175
  65. Chuan, YapLipin, Daniel, Lua, Linda and Middelberg, Anton (2007).Optimization of colloid-inspired virus-vaccine processing in cell-free reactors. In: Chemeca 2007: Academia and industry : Strengthening the profession.. Chemeca 2007: Academia and Industry: Strengthening the Profession, Melbourne, Australia., (). 23-26 September 2007.
  66. Lua, Linda H. L. and Reid, Steven (2005).The importance of cholesterol for insect cell growth and baculovirus production. In: Francesc Godia and Martin Fussenegger, Animal cell technology meets genomics: Proceedings of the 18th ESACT Meeting. 18th Meeting of the European Society of Animal Cell Technology (ESACT), Granada, Spain, (565-568). 11-14 May 2003. doi:10.1007/1-4020-3103-3_111
  67. Lua, L. H. L. and Reid, S. (2003).The importance of cholesterol for insect cell growth and baculovirus production. In: European Society for Animal Cell Technology 2003. European Society for Animal Cell Technology 2003, Granada, Spain, (1-1). 2003.
  68. Lua, H. L. and Reid, S. (1999).Challenges posed by in vitro production of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus for use as a biopesticide. In: The 5th Asia-Pacific Biochemical Engineering Conference 1999 and The 11th Annual Meeting of the Thai Society of Biotechnology. APBioChEC '99, Phuket, Thailand, (P-B49). 15-18 November.